• The Things Judges Say! Judges’ Comments in Jury Trials

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    In Lacey v. Kirk, (COA14-688; Dec. 31, 2014), the Court of Appeals considered whether a judge’s statements in the jury’s presence entitled defendant to a new trial. Defendant took issue with several things the judge said while defendant testified, including instructing her to “tell the truth” when she was evasive; that she had “a problem” if she couldn’t prove a point without hearsay; and to “answer the question first” before explaining. The court held that—considered cumulatively and in context—these comments were an attempt to aid the flow of evidence and were not prejudicial. Also, the judge’s instructions to counsel to move faster and avoid repetition “exhibited a certain degree of impatience” but were “meted out” to both sides and were appropriate to preserve court time. Lacey is a fresh example our courts’ basic analysis of judge statements in front of a jury: Neutrality is paramount, but context and cumulative impact determine whether questionable remarks taint a party’s case.

    Neutrality required. Improper comments by a judge in front of the jury are an irregularity under Rule of Civil Procedure 59(a)(1) and, when prejudicial, may require a new trial. Judges are prohibited from making certain statements that weigh more in one party’s favor than the other: “Every litigant in the courts of this State is entitled by the law to have his cause considered with the cold neutrality of the impartial judge[.]” Russell v. Town of Morehead City, 90 N.C. App. 675, 679 (1988). Rule of Civil Procedure 51(a) states that “[i]n charging the jury…, a judge shall not give an opinion as to whether or not a fact is fully or sufficiently proved[.]” A new trial was required over paternity where the judge implied that the jury should give more weight to the mother’s testimony than to defendant’s witnesses, Searcy v. Justice, 20 N.C. App. 559, 562 (1974), and in a tort case where the charge referred to a witness as “of perhaps weak mentality” though nothing in evidence related to her mental condition, Burkey v. Kornegay, 261 N.C. 513, 513 (1964). New trials were ordered when the judge suggested a jury give more weight to defendant’s appraisers than plaintiff’s lay witnesses, State Highway Comm’n v. Ferry, 19 N.C. App. 332, 336, (1973), and more weight to one witness than they “would to another witness,” In Re Holland’s Will, 16 N.C. App. 398, 399–400 (1972).

    Applies to whole trial. Neutrality is required during the entire trial, not just the charge conference. Russell, 90 N.C. App. at 680; Saintsing v. Taylor, 57 N.C. App. 467, 472 (1982). “Juries entertain great respect for [the judge’s] opinion, and are easily influenced by any suggestion coming from him. As a result, he must abstain from conduct or language which tends to discredit or prejudice (any party) or his cause with the jury.” Searcy, 20 N.C. App. at 561. Where defendants were town officers, a judge made numerous disparaging remarks about public officials:

    • When asked to excuse some defendants to attend town business and a ship’s dedication, he replied, “It would suit me just fine if they never come back” and “All politicians go to all meetings. I imagine they will have a pigpicking on the grounds.”
    • When a witness testified to seeing public employees on disputed property, the judge declared, “Typical, public service workers sitting around doing nothing.”
    • Before the charge, he gave a speech about protecting citizens against government and encouraged the jurors to “think about the fact that you live in a country in which the government itself is subject to law.”
    • He suggested in front of the jury that the charge conference would be short and said: “I have already got my mind made up.”

    Russell, 90 N.C. App. at 680−82. A new trial was required because of the “cumulative prejudicial effect” of the comments. Id. at 683. Likewise, in an action involving an ABC agent, the court made 37 comments at defendant’s expense, ranging from jokes about defendant and alcoholic beverages to criticism of defense examination, including, “I’m bored with the repetition, frankly, and I think everybody else is” and “I don’t know why we’re getting so torn to pieces by a little liquor and gambling going on.” Meanwhile, the judge openly complimented an opposing party witness, telling him, “[t]hank you for being here, sir. I enjoyed your explanation.” McNeill v. Durham Cty ABC Bd, 322 N.C. 425, 429–30 (1988). In another case, when a judge curtailed an examination and counsel responded in frustration, the judge threatened, “[a]bout two remarks like that, you are going to have more trouble than you have in your life.” With further “sharp remarks,” the statement “tended to discredit defendants’ counsel, and hence their cause, in the eyes of the jury.” Board of Transp. v. Wilder, 28 N.C. App. 105, 107–08 (1975); see also Worrell v. Hennis Cred. Union, 12 N.C. App. 275, 279 (1971) (judge sustained own objections to ten defense questions, struck defense testimony on own motion, and displayed “antagonistic attitude” toward defendant).

    Impact on jury is key. Whether a statement warrants new trial depends on its impact on the jury. The movant must show prejudice, and “the probable effect upon the jury, and not the motive of the judge, is determinative.” Colonial Pipeline Co. v. Weaver, 310 N.C. 93, 103 (1984). The statement will be evaluated in context “because a word is not a crystal, transparent and unchanged; it is the skin of a living thought and may vary greatly in color and content according to the circumstances and the time in which it is used.” Id. Using the phrase “the negligent defendant” in a last clear chance instruction was not prejudicial in the context of the entire charge, Bowden v. Bell, 116 N.C. App. 64, 72–73 (1994), and an instruction to examine one exhibit “very carefully” was not a prejudicial comment on the exhibit’s probative force, Mack Fin. Corp. v. Harnett Transfer, Inc., 42 N.C. App. 116, 123 (1979). See also O’Mara v. Wake Forest Univ. Health Sciences, 184 N.C. App. 428, 441 (2007) (judge’s extensive questioning of expert was for clarification and not prejudicial); Ward v. McDonald, 100 N.C. App. 359, 362 (1990) (no prejudice where judge remarked to the jury that trial needed to be shortened); Lenins v. K-mart Corp., 98 N.C. App. 590, 594–95 (1990) (“informal and even jocular” comments not prejudicial in light of all facts); Colonial, 310 N.C. at 103–04 (no prejudice where judge interrupted testimony stating, “I don’t believe that is relevant.”); Saintsing, 57 N.C. App. at 472–73 (no prejudice where judge responded harshly to objections).

    In sum, judges must refrain from comments that compromise the fairness of jury trials. But—as Lacey shows—they often need to speak up to keep the case under control. For this reason, “remarks made by the trial court in the jury’s presence do not always constitute prejudicial error. Judges are not merely mute observers of the legal drama before them. They are the most important participants in the search for truth through trial by jury.” Colonial, 310 N.C. at 103.

    Ann Anderson is an associate professor with the UNC School of Government and specializes in civil procedure, civil practice, and judicial authority.

    2 thoughts on “The Things Judges Say! Judges’ Comments in Jury Trials”

    • James L. (Larry) Smith says:

      I remember several cases in the past in which judges made improper comments to the jury. Jury verdicts were reversed in my own cases. Judge Ronald Howell nobbled the jury by referring to a statement the defendant, Floyd Douglas Bray, in State v Bray. In his instructions Howell called the statement a ‘confession.’ In fact it was NOT a confession, or at least the question was for the jury, and the court of appeals sent the case back to Buncombe for a new trial. The District Attorney, Robert D. Fisher, then took a voluntary dismissal; and the case was not retried.

      In the other case Judge Peter L. Roda, tracking an insurance defense lawyer’s improper argument (to which we had objected and were overruled) to the jury that the defendant had broken no law, instructed the jury with similar language in a bailment case in which the defendant, a bailee for hire, had been sued for negligence in not providing adequate security and making it easy for thieves to steal the plaintiff’s motorcycle from the defendant’s dealership and maintenance shop. The jury found for the defendant, and the court of appeals reversed. That case was Smith v McRary Harley-Davidson.

      I also remember a case from the 70’s in which the jury in a criminal case asked Judge B. T. “Buzz” Falls if they ruled for the state, who would fix punishment? The judge answered that it was the jury’s duty to find the defendant guilty or not guilty… and the judge’s to issue a sentence, if any. “But if you do your duty, I’ll do mine.” That conviction came back from the appellate courts with an order for a new trial.

      There are several more funny stories about “Buzz” Falls, who, like Judge Robert D. Lewis, never seemed to be able to doff his prosecutorial hat when he became a judge. But you’ll have to hear those stories about Falls and Lewis later.

    • James L. (Larry) Smith says:

      In the late 70’s or early 80’s I attended a criminal defense lawyers’ seminar in Raleigh in which the creme-de-la-creme of NC defense lawyers lectured us young lawyers on how to represent the criminal defendant.

      The speakers brought their anecdotes with them, and one that stood out in my memory came from prominent lawyer Art Vann of Durham. He was a small, handsome man with a booming bass voice and a great delivery. Vann was quite the showman, and very articulate with the English language. One of his narratives had to do with a bit of rhubarb with a judge, whose name I do not recall. He said that the judge became increasingly irritable with him during cross-examination, and so he asked to approach the bench. “Three GD times you have shot me down,” he said to the judge, “and I am frankly at a loss as to why. And I am a little fed up with it.” The judge then reacted with a threat of contempt. To which Vann replied, “You can find me in contempt. You might put me in jail, but you can’t keep me there forever.” (I left out some of the other colorful language.)

      Each lawyer who paid for that seminar later received in the mail a videotape of the proceedings, but I noticed that THAT part of the proceedings had been redacted. It would have been a keeper.

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